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Colloidal Silver

Biophysical Properties of Silver

Silver has a number of unique properties including its strength, malleability and ductility, its electrical and thermal conductivity, its sensitivity to and high reflectance of light and the ability to endure extreme temperature ranges. Silver is an important catalyst in organic chemistry which may account in part for its activity against microbes. Silver nanoparticles of 1 -20 nm  remain unmetabolised in the human body, do not accumulate in tissues, are not affected by stomach hydrochloric acid and are rapidly excreted by the kidney and are completely nontoxic. Silver ions on the other hand can enter into chemical reactions, such as with Hydrochloric Acid in the stomach.  Biophysica has researched novel high frequency technologies to ensure the smallest silver nanoparticles devoid of ions.
Abundance:
Silver occurs in the metallic state, commonly associated with gold, copper, lead, and zinc. It is also found in some 60 minerals including: argentite (a sulfide), cerargyrite (a chloride), many other sulfides and tellurides.
Silver Atom:
atomic diameter = 0.288 nanometres
Nanoscience:
Nanoclusters have been called a new state of matter where the particles behave as separate entities not bound by the influence of, or attachment to, other atoms and molecules.  They also behave uniquely and anomalously to magnetic fields.  Nanoclusters are extremely stable, acts like a single atom and are predisposed to form with only certain number of atoms (magic numbers) especially 8, 20, 40, 58, 93.  They may also form a Bose-Einstein Condensate where all the atoms lose individuality and become superconductive with no losses or inefficiency. Although they are inherently neutral, they may take on a negative charge which further prevents interaction with other negatively charged entities such as Anions. When they are less than 10 nm, they easily pass through the blood-brain barrier and into the Mitochondria and are rapidly excreted through the kidney. They have powerful catalytic effects on organic molecules and on oxidation reactions such as used by bacteria and viruses.
Reactions:
Reacts mildly with the Oxygen in air: mild, =>Ag2O
No reaction with concentrated Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
Reacts with strong Nitric Acid (AgNO3) to form Silver Nitrate
Magnetics:
Silver has one loose electron (its magnetic moment remains without being cancelled by other electrons) in 5s shell, and this electron, if placed in a strong magnetic field, can split its spin either UP or DOWN.  Biophysica uses this splitting principle in its magnetic stirrer to help ensure the smallest nanoparticles of 1 to 8 nm and the highest Zeta Potential of -60 millivolts.
Medical Applications of Silver
While silver’s importance as a bactericide has been documented only since the late 1800s, its use in purification has been known throughout the ages. Early records indicate that the Phoenicians, for example, used silver vessels to keep water, wine and vinegar pure during their long voyages. In America, pioneers moving west put silver and copper coins in their water barrels to keep it clean.
In fact, “born with a silver spoon in his mouth” is not a reference to wealth, but to health. In the early 18th century, babies who were fed with silver spoons were healthier than those fed with spoons made from other metals, and silver pacifiers found wide use in America because of their beneficial health effects.
Silver also has a variety of uses in pharmaceuticals. In fact, silver sulfadiazine is the most powerful compound for burn treatment. It is used by every hospital in North America for burn victims to kill bacteria and allow the body to naturally restore the burn area. It is used world-wide. It is sold under the trade name of Silvadiene. In another application polyurethane central venus catheters impregnated with silver sulfadiazine and chlorhexidine to eliminate catheter-related bacteriemia are supplied by Arrow International, Reading, PA.
In a world concerned with the spreading of virus and disease, silver is increasingly being tapped for its bactericidal properties and used in treatments for conditions ranging from severe burns to Legionnaires Disease.
Water Purification using Silver
Silver is employed as a bactericide and algaecide in an ever increasing number of water purification systems in hospitals, remote communities and, more recently, domestic households.
Silver ions have been used to purify drinking water and swimming pool water for generations. New research into silver compounds is providing physicians with powerful, clinically effective treatments against which bacteria cannot develop resistance.
An increasing trend is the millions of on-the-counter and under-the-counter water purifiers that are sold each year in the United States to clean drinking water of bacteria, chlorine, trihalomethanes, lead, particulates, and odor. Here silver is used to prevent the buildup of bacteria and algae in the filters. Of the billions of dollars spent yearly in the U.S. for drinking water purification systems, over half make advantageous use of the bactericidal properties of silver. New research has shown that the catalytic action of silver, in concert with oxygen, provides a powerful sanitizer, virtually eliminating the need for the use of corrosive chlorine.
Silver References:
  1. Water Science and Technology 31:5-6 (1995) 123-129 – Rami Pedahzur et al. – The interaction of silver ions and hydrogen peroxide in the inactivation of E. coli: a preliminary evaluation of a new long acting residual drinking water disinfectant
  2. Water Science and Technology 31:5-6 (1995) 119-122 – J. M. Cassells et al. – Efficacy of a combined system of copper and silver and free chlorine for inactivation of Naegleria fowleri amoebas in water
  3. Water Science and Technology 35:11-12 (1997) 87-93 – R. Pedahzur et al. – Silver and hydrogen peroxide as potential drinking water disinfectants: their bactericidal effects and possible modes of action
  4. Water Science & Technology 42:1-2 (2000) 293-298 – R Pedahzur et al. – The efficacy of long-lasting residual drinking water disinfectantsbased on hydrogen peroxide and silver
  5. Water Science & Technology 42:1-2 (2000) 215-220 – L Liberti et al. – Comparison of advanced disinfecting methods for municipal waste water reuse in agriculture
  6. Accumulation of copper and silver onto cell body of and its effect on the inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  7. J Water Health – (2006) – David Collart et al. – Efficacy of oligodynamic metals in the control of bacteria growth in humidifier water tanks and mist droplets
  8. Silver Institute at www.silverinstitute.org
  9. http://www.silver-colloids.com/Papers/IonsAtoms&ChargedParticles.PDF Ions are positive, particles are negatively charged.